Pollution and type of pollution


Environmental pollution refers to the degradation of environmental quality at the local level by the actions of humans. Environmental environment at local, regional and world levels by human works and natural processes. Degradation occurs. Industrial development, urbanization, nuclear energy etc. Level is elevated but its deadly consequences Consequently, environmental balance has stagnated.


Types of pollution

Humans have polluted the environment directly or indirectly by spreading many destructive elements. Environmental pollution can be divided as follows.
1. Sound Pollution
2. Water Pollution
3. Soil Pollution
4. Nuclear pollution
5. Thermal Pollution
6. Air Pollution
7. Urban pollution

1.  Noise pollution

When the sound exceeds one limit, then it is human and Other organisms become fatal for animals, then they are called noise pollution. The intensity of the sound is measured in decibels or bell. For a normal person, hearing sound of 50 decibility intensities is appropriate and normal. From 80 decibels The sound of more intensity, is called noise.
Due to noise pollution
The causes of noise pollution can be divided into two parts.
Natural causes
Human reason

2. Water Pollution

Water pollution is only to meet any kind of undesirable gaseous, liquid or solid substances in water.
Due to water pollution
Water pollution is caused by two reasons.
Natural 2. Anthropogenic Natural Factors

3. Soil Pollution

When the top layer of land is depleted due to human or nature in the quality of the soil, then it is called soil pollution.

4. Nuclear pollution

The radiation from the diodeactive substance is called 'radioactive pollution'. Dioactive substances automatically emit radiation; Such as uranium, thorium, plutonium etc.

5. Thermal pollution

Unwanted increase in temperature of atmospheric factors is called thermal pollution.
Thermal pollution can be divided into two parts. 1. Water Thermal Pollution 2. Atmospheric thermal pollution

6. air pollution

Uninterrupted elements of which air is polluted. They are called air pollutants and pollutants generated by them are called air pollution.

Noise pollution

Noise pollution

When the sound exceeds one limit, then it is human and Other organisms become fatal for animals, then they are called noise pollution.
The intensity of the sound is measured in decibels or bell. For a normal person, hearing sound of 50 decibility intensities is appropriate and normal. From 80 decibels The sound of more intensity, is called noise.

Noise pollution

Cause of noise pollution

The causes of noise pollution can be divided into two parts.

Natural reason

It includes cloudburst, lightning, sound of earthquake, rapidly falling water, stormy winds, etc. But they are transient and their effects are limited and transient.

Human reason

Humans can produce sound pollution in the following ways.
By industrial units
Many large factories have loud sound of machines, so that the closest person can not talk and small factories; For example, carving, making the pages of metals, etc. consistently have the same type of voice, which causes sound pollution.
By means of commute
The number of vehicles in urban areas and their main markets and passing through human beings leads to noise pollution.

 is . Having rail tracks to be near colonies, thereby making noise pollution by the engine of the train at night.
Big buildings, roads, fly over
At the time of their construction - nowadays, the construction work of residential complexes, huge buildings, etc. in place and place in each and every city, runs for several months - due to which the sound of machines and laborers working together, Sound pollution in that area On the flyover construction and after construction, the traffic of vehicles produces noise pollution.
Social activities and recreational means
To organize large events in the open ground, in social-religious programs such as puja, religious awareness, marriage and so on etc., loud sound is produced by making large speakers, so far there is sound pollution.

Effects of noise pollution

1. It creates symptoms of irritability, headache, fatigue, and affects the functioning and concentration of the person.
2. In the industries where the machines are highly noise, the health and health of the working people. Auditory power is adversely affected. Deafness begins in it.
3. Acute sound has adverse effects on heart rate, blood pressure and muscle tension.

Noise pollution control

The most important measure of sound pollution control is to control its sources. Apart from this, reducing their harmful effects by some precautions and restraint.

1. In the industry of more sound, employees and laborers of the workers can be prevented by the effect of pollution on health by using Karnal and Karnamf.
2. Glass windows, doors installed in buildings constructed on main roads.
3. Keep small factories in the industries far away from the residential settlements.
4. By following the rules of traffic.
5. Reduce the noise by proper maintenance of the macho in the industries.
6. The limit of maximum noise should be set on bus stands, airports etc.
7. It will be good if people do not do loudspeakers while doing party narrative reading awakening in homes because people suffer due to being in the name of religion, people also hesitate to object
8. Marriage is a personal task. Think of it as justified to drum like tribals.
9. Green plants, which are planted in high and polluted areas, are known as green mufflers. They have the ability to absorb the sound waves

Water Pollution ,cause and effect of water pollution

water pollution

Water pollution is only to meet any kind of undesirable gaseous, liquid or solid substances in water.

Caused  water pollution

Due to water pollution, water pollution is caused by the following two reasons.
1. Natural  2. Anthropogenic

Natural factors:

1. Volcanic ash, dust, weathering etc.
2. Organic waste of forests - such as dry leaves, dead creatures - residues of animals etc. are found in the reservoirs flowing through the rain.
3. Some toxic substances such as mercury, arsenic lead, cadmium, etc. do water pollution in the water. Water is polluted by getting acid rainwater, organic and inorganic substances.
4. With soil erosion, leaching of minerals also results in water pollution.

Anthropogenic agent

1. Meet in the water of excreta, water, stool etc. of household and public toilets.
2. Delivering dead animals - animals etc. in water.
3. Leave industrial waste directly in rivers or reservoirs.
4. Meeting of urban garbage and domestic abductors in the rivers.
5. The temperature of water released from nuclear and thermal power plants is high. And it is also polluted, whereby plants and plants die. '
6. Oily pollution; Like - from the ships, by the time of the transport of oil, by the accident, the oceans along the ocean well, etc.
7. Due to the use of fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture, the water which flows in these farms becomes polluted

 water pollution

Effects of water pollution

It is believed that there are harmful effects from water pollution as water bodies are essential for all animals, humans, vegetation etc. Therefore, the impact of water pollution affects everyone.

1. Impact on vegetation, due to excess of nitrate, phosphate etc in agricultural effluents, it becomes a water bloom of aquatic algae like Neel-green algae. As a result, most of the other vegetation is gone. 3.
2. Water from domestic waste, scalding etc. becomes alkaline and inappropriate; much aquatic vegetation is destroyed.
3. Due to excessive moisture in polluted water the sunlight is completely  in water. Cannot enter, this reduces the process of photosynthesis.
4. Due to the adulteration of oil in water, the aquatic organisms cannot get oxygen, they do not fly and die due to the oil in the birds' wings.

 Extraction of organic substances (such as waste products, flowing stool - urine) in water is called Eutrophication. Up gradation of organic matter in water enhances the productivity of water, through these aquatic plants. The fox increases more and covers the surface of water, and most of the water is absorbed by the oxygen, which reduces the season for organisms. The amount of wigeon required for decomposition by microorganisms is called Biological Oxygen Dernand (BOD)

Effect of polluted water on humans

By drinking polluted drinking water, humans may be at risk of the following diseases.
1. Jaundice, Hepatitis etc. Viral born diseases.
2. Typhoid, cholera, diarrhea, dysentery etc. are bacterial diseases. Nauru is a worm-borne disease.
3. Skin diseases, eye diseases, secondary infections etc.
4. Amoebas, stomach ache, intestinal tract infection and protozoa etc. Born disease
5. Dental decay (fluorosis), distortion of bones are water borne diseases in Rajasthan by the presence of fluoride present in high quantity of water.
6. The presence of cadmium, mercury, nitrite, arsenic, ladders etc. makes the water poisonous. Due to Parva (Hg), it causes Minamata disease. Cattyame causes iti-Itai disease.
7. Refinance of polluted water costs a lot of money.
8. Excessive amount of water in the nitrate acts as hemoglobin by making hemoglobin, which distorts oxygen traffic. It is called methamphetamine or blue baby syndrome.
9. Concentrations of non-biodegradable each nutrient. Grows at the level and becomes the highest among the high consumer. This verb is called biological magnification.

Influence on aquatic organisms

1. Fishes die from aquatic pollution. Hence there is adverse impact on the fishing industry and other industries. Daphania, trout etc. shows the intensity of water pollution.

2. The opposite effect of oil pollution on sea organisms. . 
3. End of many organisms simultaneously with thermal pollution

A. Geological Survey of India, India's first core library (mineral) is being set up in Jhunjhunun, Rajasthan.
B. India's most polluted river is Amalakhedi (Gujarat).
C. Itati-Iti disease occurs due to excessive cadmium.
D. The major pollutants of ground water are arsenic and fluoride
E. Damodar river (in India) is the most polluted river due to arsenic.

Influence on other organisms

 1. Drinking polluted water like cow, buffalo etc. gets infected with intestinal diseases.
2. Drinking water containing fluoride leads to tuberculosis of bones and teeth in pet and wild animals.

Rules and Regulations of Water Pollution Control

1. Apply for Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 so that water pollution can be prevented and controlled and nutritious water can be retained in the country.
2. This Act was amended in 1988

Soil Pollution

Soil Pollution

When the top layer of land is depleted due to human or nature in the quality of the soil, then it is called soil pollution.

Due to soil pollution

Soil pollution can be the following.
1. Soil erosion
2. Decrease in micro-organisms living in soil.
3. High volatility in temperature.
4. By mining industries
5. In the process of urbanization and road construction.
6. Wastes derived from industries, which are shed on the ground; Such as metals, acids, alkalis, dyes, metal-oxides, insecticides etc.
7. In western Rajasthan and many other parts of the country, underground water is saline. In which the upper soil becomes insipid due to irrigation.
8. The use of insecticides, herbs, and pesticides in agriculture increases soil toxicity.
9. Soil is polluted by getting rid of waste and waste products in the soil.


Effects of Soil Pollution

1. With soil erosion the land turns into wasteland.
2. Pesticides, fungicides, fumigants, such as - BEHC, DDT, in the food chain of the Alti man, crops, vegetables, milk eggs etc. come in the food they create many deadly diseases.
3. Some chemicals are never decomposed in the mud and make permanent maladies in them.
4. The sulfur compounds act with water and make the acid and the soil excessive. This acidity makes acidic trees - damages the plants.
5. Urban waste has inexpensive waste and excessive plastic, which never ends.

 Measures for soil pollution control

1. Extra-more trees should be protected from erosion by planting more trees.
2. Organic manure in the form of compost; For example, chemical fertilization should be used in dung, leaf manure and low quantity.
3. Industrial effluents are prohibited without shedding the soil without proper treatment and filtering lethal chemicals.
4. Disposal of national urban wastewater used in power generation and manure production etc., disposed of waste.
5. Use of at least pesticides should be used for agricultural production.
6. India has set up National Land Use and Protection Board in this direction. Coordination policy for the health and scientific management of the land resources of the country works at the national level in the form of planning and monitoring.

The program for the revival of alkaline soil was done in the seventh plan, in which about 7 million hectares of land in the country are about 3 68 million hectares are suffering from alkalinity. Thus, the alkaline land is located in 11 states.

Nuclear pollution Types of nuclear pollution and it's control

Nuclear pollution

The radiation from the diodeactive substance is called 'radioactive pollution'. Dioactive substances automatically emit radiation; Such as uranium, thorium, plutonium etc.

Nuclear pollution

Types of nuclear pollution

Radioactive pollution is of two types.

1. Human-Generated

This pollution is mainly caused by the explosion of leakage, plutonium and thorium purification from nuclear reactors, nuclear experiments, molecular energy equipment, pharmacology, exploration of radioactive materials, and atomic bombs. Apart from these, radioactive isotopes are manufactured in cobalt-60, stratium-90, carbon-14, cesium-137 and tritium.

2 . Nature born

Due to the sun's rays and radioactive substances hidden in the womb of the Earth; Eg - Radium-224, Uranium-238, Potassium-4U, which is polluted due to nature's population. Pollution occurs. Due to its low intensity it does not cause any significant damage to life

Effects of nuclear pollution

Due to solid radioactive pollution, hazardous diseases in humans become bone cancer, blood cancers and bone TB etc. Due to radioactive pollution, the harmful mutation occurs in the genes and chromosomes. Children die in the uterus. The effects of radioactive pollution are gradually seen in many years as paralysis, depletion, deafness etc. 

In 1945, the city of Hiroshima in Japan (August 6) and Nagasaki (August 9), the United States destroyed the two cities by blasting a nuclear bomb. Here people died due to radioactive pollution and the chief died. Presently about 67 years later, children can be seen as being crippled and urban. It is noteworthy that the effect of radioactive radiation on thousands of years is due to the fact Stays till . 
It is also worth noting that al-radioactive pollution is the most fatal in all pollutants. Thousands of people were killed on April 26, 1986 in Charnobil of Soviet Russia and September 30, 1999 in Tokyo, Japan and in Japan's nuclear reactors Pla (March 2011) Fukuyama.

Measures of nuclear pollution control

1. Production and use of nuclear weapons should be prohibited.
2. Rational and waste disposal of the radiacic waste.
3. Equipment for human experimentation should be freed from radioactivity
4. Avoid UV radiations by wearing glasses.
5. Where these nuclei are used, the work should end soon. Which reduces more person and time, from which per person emergence. (Exposure) is minimal.

6. As far as possible, radioactive substances should not be immersed in sea, river, water etc.
7. Restrictions from reactors, restriction on radioactive fuel and use of transport and use of isotope should be banned.
8. The establishment of a nuclear reactor should be far away from the human population.
9. The rules regarding safety should be strictly followed.
10. Diacococus is defeated by radiodurens as the world's strongest bacterium, on which there is no effect of nuclear explosion. Its Fierce: Pollution can be found by dismantling parakee compounds and other pollutants

Thermal pollution & its effect

Thermal pollution

Unwanted increase in temperature of atmospheric factors is called thermal pollution.

Thermal pollution can be divided into two parts. 
1. Water Thermal Pollution 
2. Atmospheric thermal

Thermal pollution

Due to water thermal pollution

1. Immersion of hot industrial effluents into the water by the industries.
2. Absorption of heat in excess of the substances present on the surface of polluted water.

Due to atmospheric thermal pollution

1. With the increase in the number of vehicles globally
2. Excess of various gases present in the smoke coming from the industries; . Such as greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide etc.
3. Chlorofluorocarbon emitted from refrigeration equipment, aircraft etc.
4. By the vapor of carbon tetra chloride, methyl chloroform etc. omitted from industries based on solvents

Effects of thermal pollution

1. Due to the loss of ozone layer, it increases the incidence of skin cancer from ultraviolet radiation.
2. Global warming.
3. Melting of snow of polar regions by increasing the sea level.
4. Changes in water cycle deteriorate somewhere, then somewhere flood.
5. In the last 140 years 2001 was the warmest year. 6. According to a study conducted by the Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS) of the United Nations Environment Program, the risk of thermal pollution will be higher on India's tropical country. )

Air pollution ,Reason , Effects control of air pollution

Uninterrupted elements of which air is polluted. They are called air pollutants and pollutants generated by them are called air pollution.

Reason for air pollution

The cause of air pollution can be divided into two parts.
1. Natural causes 2. Human causes

Air pollution

1. Natural reasons

There is pollution in the air from the volcanic eruptions, fires in forests, dust blowing during the storms, mud and bogs during biological and chemical processes occurring in bogs. But This pollution is in very small quantities, whose diagnosis is also naturally occur only after some time.

2 Human factors

The reason for air pollution is primarily human. It started due to industrialization, urbanization and technical development. You can clarify this as follows.
1. Industrialization requires energy, due to which biological. Fuels are combusted, as a result many gases and substances are produced; Such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide etc.
2. Combustion of coal is done in the power houses, in which large amounts of sulfur dioxide, sooty, colodya ash etc. are wasted in air. Are omitted.
3. Smoke comes from the combustion of gasoline or diesel used in the means of transportation (such as car, tank, bus etc.), in which micro carbon particles, nitrogen oxides and peroxide gases, carbon monoxide gases, ladders etc., which emit y Pollute. The main pollutants produced by the engines are carbon monoxide (77.2%), nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons.
4. Combustion of fossil fuels used in household work also results in polluting the air.

5. Molecular explosions also contain harmful chemicals and dust particles in air. Together it pollutes.
6. Physical instruments; For example - Chlorofluorocarbon is used as refrigerants in fridge, air conditioners etc., which gradually destroys the ozone layer, which is called ozone hole. Due to ozone, ultraviolet rays reach the Earth and the skin produces cancers.
7. In order to increase productivity in agricultural works, pesticide is very fine sprayed. In addition, DDT, BHC etc. are also powder. All these harmful substances combine the air into the air to pollute the air.
8. The use of the organic solvents; For example, the furniture of polish, spray stomach is done. These liquid hydrocarbons that evaporate at low heat. So when it is used, it evaporates into the air, pollutes the air
9. By smoking people

10. By toiletries.
11. Other than firecrackers run for fun; For example, carcasses - carpets, dead animals, etc., smelled deodorant. Are those that pollute the air.

Effects of air pollution

Since the air can go far away - the effect of this pollution is widespread. This pollution affects all vegetation, human health, other organisms, environment, etc. adversely. Their effect can be seen as follows.

Effects on flora

Plants' leaves fall precipitously due to the insoluble atmosphere with foul smell. Flatirons hydrocarbons of leaves are blocked by oil, so that both photosynthesis and transpiration are adversely affected. Leaves are removed from hydrocarbons prematurely and flower petals are twisted. In areas with high air pollution, the gases in the air with rain water harm the flora. Combustion of fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum) produces sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide (CO) etc., which act with atmospheric water to produce sulfuric acid or nitric acid. With acidic water these acids also come to Earth so it is called acid rain. Acid rain causes the color of flowers to become faint, loss of plants, nutrients from the soil are released by soil neutralization. Countries affected by acid rain are North America and Scandinavian countries.

Influence on human health

Carbon monoxide present in the air passes through the sauces to the papilla, making it hemoglobin in hemoglobin in the blood. Forest monoxide (CO) is 200 times more active than oxygen. Therefore, the person has a very small amount of carbon monoxide. Damages and if its volume is abundant, then the person suffers from suffocation, because the carbon monoxide reduces the ability to carry oxygen due to the blood. It suffers from and decreases the functioning of asphyxia and lungs and brain function. In winter nights, people often go to sleep without burning the coal in the air room, due to which there is no abundance of oxygen due to coal burning, instead of CO, C0 gas, which makes the air faster than hemoglobin of human blood From which sleeping in the room. The death is due to the death.
1. Ga skies from vehicles; Such as carbon monoxide (77%), nitrogen. Oxides and hydrocarbons enter the body with respiration, etc. By which the respiratory system diseases in humans, asthma, bronchitis, burning in the eyes. Soreness and infection occur in children

2. Nitrogen oxide + hydrocarbons - Parallax acetyl nitrate + O (ozone).
3. Ozone affects the respiratory system and the eyes of the animals. PAN WASHABLE Harms to PAN light prevents optical decomposition of water in synthesis.
4. NO2, 03 and PAN are collectively called photo chemical smog. The effect of the PAN is the dissolution of the ozone layer and radiation of ultraviolet rays increases on Earth, which is harmful to the organisms.
5. Sulfur dioxide damages the membrane system of living cells, causing tissue decay and headache.
6. Burning coal is also free of CO and water and oxide mixture is also free. The mineral ash flies from the coal as a fly ash. Some licenses; Like - Ussenia, SO, indicates pollution.

Impact on insects and wildlife

Animal organisms are also affected by air pollution; Like - some bees, butterflies, etc. are eliminated by air pollution. Due to decrease in the production of Kashmiri apples, the number of bees is considered to be low because the bees help fertilize the flowers by fertilizing the flowers. The respiratory system and the nervous system are affected due to the visible air of other wildlife.

Air pollution rules and regulations

1. Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 came into effect and was revised in 1987 to prevent and control air pollution in India.
2. Due to the loss of forests and fossil fuels also due to the concentration of increasing CO2, a thick cover is formed in the atmosphere, which prevents heat returning from the Earth. This increases the temperature of the Earth, which is called the Green Home Effect. | The major greenhouse gases are CO2, N2O, CH4, CFCs

Measures for air pollution control

1. Automated Vehicle Use of Sharped Natural Gas (CNG) in the place of Petrol as possible. Those .
2. Comprehensive surveys and studies to be conducted to check current air pollution levels and regular monitoring of pollution should be done.
3. Use of alternative sources of energy should be promoted; Such as tidal energy, bio-energy energy, wind power, solar thermal energy, hydroelectric energy etc.
4. To reduce pollution from automated vehicles, 'scrubber' should be included in trains.
5. Efforts should be made at the national level for the complete destruction of ruthenium or carrot grass.
6. It is necessary to have bag filter in factory fire plants. From this, particulate matter with diameter less than 50 micrometers is separated.
7. Only small amounts of sulfur-containing diesel (ULSD) or green diesel should be used in diesel trains.
8. Other alternate fuels of vehicles; Such as: Cola band methane, bio diesel etc.
9. There should be huge reductions in the production and consumption of deadly polluting materials and elements, such as chloro-fluoro carbon (CFCS) which causes decaying ozone.
10. Lacto-Static Preceptor, High NG scrubber etc. are used to prevent the spread of small particles of particles from a micrometer to the atmosphere.
12. On November 2, 2001, the Supreme Court on the Public Interest Litigation (PIL) of Congress leader Muriel Deborah issued an order prohibiting smoking at all public places.

Glass and type of glass

Chemical nature of glass 

Common solid silica (SiO2), sodium silicate (Na2Si03) and calcium silicate solution. Other types of coaches also have solid solutions of different silicates. The glass is a super-cooled liquid in the form of acrylic solids. Therefore, there is no crystalline structure of the coat. It does not have any definite melting point. There is no definitive chemical composition or formula in the glass, O compound .The average composition of normal glass, is NO2SiO3CaSiO34Si02

Glass construction

 Raw materials:

The following substances are required in the manufacture of glass.

Acidic Oxides:

 Acidic Oxides: A variety of acidic oxides are used in the manufacture of glass. The oxide choice depends on the quality of the glass. Some main acidic oxides are
(i) Silica (SiO2): This is used as a modified sand.
(ii) Boron tyoxide (B203): It is used to make high coat of low quality (low) in the form of boric acid or borax. It is used to make a coherent cores (such as pyrex coaches).
(iii) Phosphorus Pentoxide (P205): It is used to make opalescent glass as calcium phosphate.

Basic Oxides:

(i) Sodium oxide (Na 2O): It is inserted as soda ash (Na2CO3) or sodium sulphate and carbon.
(ii) Potassium oxide (K2O): It is inserted as potassium carbonate.
 (ii) Calcium oxide (CaO): It is inserted as limestone (CaCO3).
(iv) Verium oxide (BaO): It is inserted as barium carbonate.
 (v) Lithium oxide (Li2O): It is inserted as lithium carbonate.
 (vi) Redhead (Pb304) or Litharge (PbO).
(vii) Zinc Oxide (ZnO).

type of glass

3. Coloring materials: 

To give color to the glass, the color compounds of metals are added in small quantities. The choice of color material depends on the desired color of the glass.
     Coloring glass      colours 
 Cobalt oxide      -     dark blue
Sodium chromate or feram oxide selenium oxide  - green
 Ferric salts or sodium eurent orange - red
 Gold like chloride or cassius    -  purple ruby
Qpras oxide                                -    red
 Cadmium sulphide cracked       -  yellow color (lemon jama)
 Peacock salts                              - Peacock blue

Annealing of Glass

 The glass gradually cools down in the annealing kiln. This action is called anchorage or cooling of the cork. After cooling down, the glass becomes brittle and easily.

 Types of Glass

There are several types of glass. Some main types of glass are:

1. Soft glass: Soft glass is a simple soda - lime coat.This glass softens smoothly at about 100 ° C temperature. It is used in window glass, jars, glass glasses and sprouts etc. House is made in glass utensils.

2 .Hard glass: Hard glass is potash - lime glass (K2SiO3CaSiO3.4SiO2). This glass is soft with difficulty at about 800 ° C. It is used for use of beaker, test tube, flask and high high heat resistance The tool is in the making.

3 .Flint glass: Flint glass potash - Lead silicate glass is used by it to make lenses of prism or optical instruments.

4. Crookes glass: Rare Earth contains crude oxides of metals. It is used to make eyeglass lenses.

5 .Pyrex glass: Purex glass is a mixture of mainly Rosicilates of sodium, potassium and aluminum. In this, the percentages of silica and boric anhydride (B2O3) are also high. It is a high thermostat hardened glass. Its proportion coefficient It is very low, so it does not break with the sudden change of heat. The pyrex glass is used to make high quality equipment for laboratory

Computer and type of computer


Computers have become the part of everybody's life. Engineers and scientists use computers for difficult/tedious mathematical calculations. The commercial artists use computer as a substitute for his/her canvas. The business executives use the same as a decision-support system. It is used as an input/output system in various organizations like railways, airlines, banks, universities, hospitals and most other service providers. It is also used by children for games and other recreational purposes. Experts are trying to develop systems that will recognize the human voice and ultimate interact with the human beings. Expert systems have already been developed to take decisions like human beings. It is fact difficult to visualize an area where computer has not been used or at least is not likely to be used in the near future. Because of the tremendous impact of computers on the society, it is worthwhile to learn a little about the history development of computers. its functions and the history of the developments computer are discussed in-depth

type of  computer


Computers can be classified into three broad categories, namely
 () Digital,
(i) Analog, and
 (ii) Hybrid, the details of each category are given below

 Digital Computer

A Digital Computer deal with digitals data that can be storage into binary format. Binary data are made of two digits 0 and 1. Such data may be stored in a bit in the computer's memory. The bit may be in either of two states, namely, "on state and off stat", which respectively represent the numbers 1 and 0. Therefore, it is required to convert any type of data (even a graphic image or a musical note ) into binary format before it is stored in computer memories


A Microcomputer is one whose CPU is a microprocessor. The progress in the field of microcomputers has been phenomenal. From Intel's 8088 chip in 1980's it has changed to Intel's 80286, 80386, 80486 and Pentium. Microcomputers are used by engineers, business executives and commercial artists. These are also used in homes as personal computers. The word size of a microcomputer is 8 to 32


 A Minicomputer possesses greater amount of memory and storage capacity as compared to microcomputers. The word length of minicomputer is 32 or more. Minicomputers are usually used as multi-user systems where a large number of people can work together. The PDP and the VAX are popular minicomputers 

Mainframe Computer

Mainframe Computer is a large and powerful system with a vast amount of memory and storage space. Since the power based tremendously and they are much cheaper, the work that was done earlier by mainframes is being done by PC's. Now-a-day' popular mainframe computers s mainframes work as nodes for large computer networks. The word length of mainframe computers is generally 64. The CDC 6600 and the CYBER 170 are popular mainframe computer


Supercomputer  consists of a number of processors that can process a variety of jobs in parallel. Today's supercomputers one of instructions per second. These are applied mainly for high tech applications like nuclear research,   military application, space exploration and similar other applications. The PARAM and the ANURAG are supercomputers manufactured in India and exported to different countries

 Analog Computer

Digital computers convert continuous data into digital signals for processing. This process of conversion is known as encoding or digitizing. A digital computer essentially base upon the computer can measure a quantity however an analog computer can be measure a quantity and process it without the need of any digitization. Such computers are used mainly in scientific application’s

Hybrid Computer

A numerically-controlled machine produces cylindrical pins to very close tolerances. The machine has to keep track of the diameter of pins. This is possible if the diameter of the product is continuously measured. The instant diameter of the pin can be sent to the computer as an analog signal. Suppose the machine has a tool that requires periodic replacement. How can one get a message when the tool requires replacement This requires analysis of the trend of the products produced This is essentially statistical analysis of the past data and best handled as numeric data. One can have a computer to deal with the measurement of the diameter of the pin through an analog device and analyze the trend through statistical analysis of numeric data which is digital in nature. A computer that can deal with the numeric data and analog signals is known as a hybrid computer".



 In 1803, John Dalton presented a atomic hypothesis based on the results of experiments and observations, and on the basis of this hypothesis, he composed the composition of matter, the rules of chemical coincidence and the physical and chemical changes. The results of many experiments and observations The authenticity of Dalton's nuclear hypothesis was certified and accepted as a scientific theory. Dalton's atomic theory is called Dalton's
Dalton's atomic theory

 According to Dalton's nuclear principle,

 (1) The matter is composed of very subtle (indivisible) particles called atoms.

 (2) Atom is the subtle particle of matter which can not be divided into more subtle particles. The original particle of atomic material is.

(3) Atoms participate in chemical reactions and in chemical reactions the atom is not decomposed or destroyed.

 (4) All atoms of an element are identical to all types, that is, their mass, size and properties are similar.

(5) Each element has a fixed atomic weight. The fundamental property of atomic weight is the fundamental property.

 (6) The atoms of different elements are different from one another and their atomic masses, shapes, etc. are different.

 (7) Nuclear combinations of different elements can be combined into the whole number ratio. | And by combining them, "compound atoms" are formed.
  Elements of atomic   ,      compounds atoms
        A+B                        =        AB
      2A+B                        =        A2B

(8) Nuclear can not be produced and can not be destroyed
Amendments to Dalton's Atomic Principles

In light of modern scientific discoveries and explorations, significant modifications have been made in Dalton's original nuclear principle, which are as follows:

(1) Nuclear is divisible. It is true that atoms are not decomposed into physical and chemical changes, but by extraordinary physical methods the atoms can be broken into smaller particles than them. The atom itself can be used in various types of fine particles Are made from

Those are primary particles or subatomic particles. Elecrons are the main constituents of proton and neutron atoms.

(2) The atoms of an element can be of different atomic masses. Those atoms of an element whose atoms are different, are called isotopes.

(3) Atomic masses of atoms of different elements can be similar. Those atoms of different elements. The atoms of which are equal are called isobars.

(4) The basic symptom of the element is its atomic number and not atomic weight. The number of protons present in the atomic nuclei of an element is called the atomic number, z, of that element. Each element is a fixed Atomic numbers are different. Atomic numbers of different elements are different.

(5) Combinations of atoms are not "compound atoms" but molecules are formed.

(6) The ratio of the combination of atoms is not necessary in the smallest quantities. In the proteins, carbohydrate polymers, etc. the connective ratio of atoms is not in the periphery