Computer and type of computer


Computer


Computers have become the part of everybody's life. Engineers and scientists use computers for difficult/tedious mathematical calculations. The commercial artists use computer as a substitute for his/her canvas. The business executives use the same as a decision-support system. It is used as an input/output system in various organizations like railways, airlines, banks, universities, hospitals and most other service providers. It is also used by children for games and other recreational purposes. Experts are trying to develop systems that will recognize the human voice and ultimate interact with the human beings. Expert systems have already been developed to take decisions like human beings. It is fact difficult to visualize an area where computer has not been used or at least is not likely to be used in the near future. Because of the tremendous impact of computers on the society, it is worthwhile to learn a little about the history development of computers. its functions and the history of the developments computer are discussed in-depth

type of  computer


TYPES OF COMPUTERS 

Computers can be classified into three broad categories, namely
 () Digital,
(i) Analog, and
 (ii) Hybrid, the details of each category are given below

 Digital Computer

A Digital Computer deal with digitals data that can be storage into binary format. Binary data are made of two digits 0 and 1. Such data may be stored in a bit in the computer's memory. The bit may be in either of two states, namely, "on state and off stat", which respectively represent the numbers 1 and 0. Therefore, it is required to convert any type of data (even a graphic image or a musical note ) into binary format before it is stored in computer memories

 Microcomputer

A Microcomputer is one whose CPU is a microprocessor. The progress in the field of microcomputers has been phenomenal. From Intel's 8088 chip in 1980's it has changed to Intel's 80286, 80386, 80486 and Pentium. Microcomputers are used by engineers, business executives and commercial artists. These are also used in homes as personal computers. The word size of a microcomputer is 8 to 32

Minicomputer

 A Minicomputer possesses greater amount of memory and storage capacity as compared to microcomputers. The word length of minicomputer is 32 or more. Minicomputers are usually used as multi-user systems where a large number of people can work together. The PDP and the VAX are popular minicomputers 

Mainframe Computer

  
Mainframe Computer is a large and powerful system with a vast amount of memory and storage space. Since the power based tremendously and they are much cheaper, the work that was done earlier by mainframes is being done by PC's. Now-a-day' popular mainframe computers s mainframes work as nodes for large computer networks. The word length of mainframe computers is generally 64. The CDC 6600 and the CYBER 170 are popular mainframe computer

Supercomputer

Supercomputer  consists of a number of processors that can process a variety of jobs in parallel. Today's supercomputers one of instructions per second. These are applied mainly for high tech applications like nuclear research,   military application, space exploration and similar other applications. The PARAM and the ANURAG are supercomputers manufactured in India and exported to different countries

 Analog Computer

Digital computers convert continuous data into digital signals for processing. This process of conversion is known as encoding or digitizing. A digital computer essentially base upon the computer can measure a quantity however an analog computer can be measure a quantity and process it without the need of any digitization. Such computers are used mainly in scientific application’s

Hybrid Computer


A numerically-controlled machine produces cylindrical pins to very close tolerances. The machine has to keep track of the diameter of pins. This is possible if the diameter of the product is continuously measured. The instant diameter of the pin can be sent to the computer as an analog signal. Suppose the machine has a tool that requires periodic replacement. How can one get a message when the tool requires replacement This requires analysis of the trend of the products produced This is essentially statistical analysis of the past data and best handled as numeric data. One can have a computer to deal with the measurement of the diameter of the pin through an analog device and analyze the trend through statistical analysis of numeric data which is digital in nature. A computer that can deal with the numeric data and analog signals is known as a hybrid computer".


DALTON'S ATOMIC THEORY

DALTON'S ATOMIC THEORY


 In 1803, John Dalton presented a atomic hypothesis based on the results of experiments and observations, and on the basis of this hypothesis, he composed the composition of matter, the rules of chemical coincidence and the physical and chemical changes. The results of many experiments and observations The authenticity of Dalton's nuclear hypothesis was certified and accepted as a scientific theory. Dalton's atomic theory is called Dalton's
Dalton's atomic theory


 According to Dalton's nuclear principle,

 (1) The matter is composed of very subtle (indivisible) particles called atoms.

 (2) Atom is the subtle particle of matter which can not be divided into more subtle particles. The original particle of atomic material is.

(3) Atoms participate in chemical reactions and in chemical reactions the atom is not decomposed or destroyed.

 (4) All atoms of an element are identical to all types, that is, their mass, size and properties are similar.

(5) Each element has a fixed atomic weight. The fundamental property of atomic weight is the fundamental property.

 (6) The atoms of different elements are different from one another and their atomic masses, shapes, etc. are different.

 (7) Nuclear combinations of different elements can be combined into the whole number ratio. | And by combining them, "compound atoms" are formed.
  Elements of atomic   ,      compounds atoms
        A+B                        =        AB
      2A+B                        =        A2B

(8) Nuclear can not be produced and can not be destroyed
Amendments to Dalton's Atomic Principles


In light of modern scientific discoveries and explorations, significant modifications have been made in Dalton's original nuclear principle, which are as follows:


(1) Nuclear is divisible. It is true that atoms are not decomposed into physical and chemical changes, but by extraordinary physical methods the atoms can be broken into smaller particles than them. The atom itself can be used in various types of fine particles Are made from

Those are primary particles or subatomic particles. Elecrons are the main constituents of proton and neutron atoms.

(2) The atoms of an element can be of different atomic masses. Those atoms of an element whose atoms are different, are called isotopes.

(3) Atomic masses of atoms of different elements can be similar. Those atoms of different elements. The atoms of which are equal are called isobars.

(4) The basic symptom of the element is its atomic number and not atomic weight. The number of protons present in the atomic nuclei of an element is called the atomic number, z, of that element. Each element is a fixed Atomic numbers are different. Atomic numbers of different elements are different.

(5) Combinations of atoms are not "compound atoms" but molecules are formed.


(6) The ratio of the combination of atoms is not necessary in the smallest quantities. In the proteins, carbohydrate polymers, etc. the connective ratio of atoms is not in the periphery