Chemical nature of glass
Common solid silica (SiO2), sodium silicate (Na2Si03) and calcium silicate solution. Other types of coaches also have solid solutions of different silicates. The glass is a super-cooled liquid in the form of acrylic solids. Therefore, there is no crystalline structure of the coat. It does not have any definite melting point. There is no definitive chemical composition or formula in the glass, O compound .The average composition of normal glass, is NO2SiO3CaSiO34Si02
Raw materials:The following substances are required in the manufacture of glass.
Acidic Oxides: A variety of acidic oxides are used in the manufacture of glass. The oxide choice depends on the quality of the glass. Some main acidic oxides are(i) Silica (SiO2): This is used as a modified sand.
(ii) Boron tyoxide (B203): It is used to make high coat of low quality (low) in the form of boric acid or borax. It is used to make a coherent cores (such as pyrex coaches).
(iii) Phosphorus Pentoxide (P205): It is used to make opalescent glass as calcium phosphate.
Basic Oxides:(i) Sodium oxide (Na 2O): It is inserted as soda ash (Na2CO3) or sodium sulphate and carbon.
(ii) Potassium oxide (K2O): It is inserted as potassium carbonate.
(ii) Calcium oxide (CaO): It is inserted as limestone (CaCO3).
(iv) Verium oxide (BaO): It is inserted as barium carbonate.
(v) Lithium oxide (Li2O): It is inserted as lithium carbonate.
(vi) Redhead (Pb304) or Litharge (PbO).
(vii) Zinc Oxide (ZnO).
3. Coloring materials:
To give color to the glass, the color compounds of metals are added in small quantities. The choice of color material depends on the desired color of the glass.Coloring glass colours
Cobalt oxide - dark blue
Sodium chromate or feram oxide selenium oxide - green
Ferric salts or sodium eurent orange - red
Gold like chloride or cassius - purple ruby
Qpras oxide - red
Cadmium sulphide cracked - yellow color (lemon jama)
Peacock salts - Peacock blue
Annealing of GlassThe glass gradually cools down in the annealing kiln. This action is called anchorage or cooling of the cork. After cooling down, the glass becomes brittle and easily.
Types of GlassThere are several types of glass. Some main types of glass are:
1. Soft glass: Soft glass is a simple soda - lime coat.This glass softens smoothly at about 100 ° C temperature. It is used in window glass, jars, glass glasses and sprouts etc. House is made in glass utensils.
2 .Hard glass: Hard glass is potash - lime glass (K2SiO3CaSiO3.4SiO2). This glass is soft with difficulty at about 800 ° C. It is used for use of beaker, test tube, flask and high high heat resistance The tool is in the making.
4. Crookes glass: Rare Earth contains crude oxides of metals. It is used to make eyeglass lenses.
5 .Pyrex glass: Purex glass is a mixture of mainly Rosicilates of sodium, potassium and aluminum. In this, the percentages of silica and boric anhydride (B2O3) are also high. It is a high thermostat hardened glass. Its proportion coefficient It is very low, so it does not break with the sudden change of heat. The pyrex glass is used to make high quality equipment for laboratory