Showing posts with label Chemistry. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Chemistry. Show all posts

Glass and type of glass

Chemical nature of glass 

Common solid silica (SiO2), sodium silicate (Na2Si03) and calcium silicate solution. Other types of coaches also have solid solutions of different silicates. The glass is a super-cooled liquid in the form of acrylic solids. Therefore, there is no crystalline structure of the coat. It does not have any definite melting point. There is no definitive chemical composition or formula in the glass, O compound .The average composition of normal glass, is NO2SiO3CaSiO34Si02

Glass construction

 Raw materials:

The following substances are required in the manufacture of glass.

Acidic Oxides:

 Acidic Oxides: A variety of acidic oxides are used in the manufacture of glass. The oxide choice depends on the quality of the glass. Some main acidic oxides are
(i) Silica (SiO2): This is used as a modified sand.
(ii) Boron tyoxide (B203): It is used to make high coat of low quality (low) in the form of boric acid or borax. It is used to make a coherent cores (such as pyrex coaches).
(iii) Phosphorus Pentoxide (P205): It is used to make opalescent glass as calcium phosphate.

Basic Oxides:

(i) Sodium oxide (Na 2O): It is inserted as soda ash (Na2CO3) or sodium sulphate and carbon.
(ii) Potassium oxide (K2O): It is inserted as potassium carbonate.
 (ii) Calcium oxide (CaO): It is inserted as limestone (CaCO3).
(iv) Verium oxide (BaO): It is inserted as barium carbonate.
 (v) Lithium oxide (Li2O): It is inserted as lithium carbonate.
 (vi) Redhead (Pb304) or Litharge (PbO).
(vii) Zinc Oxide (ZnO).

type of glass

3. Coloring materials: 

To give color to the glass, the color compounds of metals are added in small quantities. The choice of color material depends on the desired color of the glass.
     Coloring glass      colours 
 Cobalt oxide      -     dark blue
Sodium chromate or feram oxide selenium oxide  - green
 Ferric salts or sodium eurent orange - red
 Gold like chloride or cassius    -  purple ruby
Qpras oxide                                -    red
 Cadmium sulphide cracked       -  yellow color (lemon jama)
 Peacock salts                              - Peacock blue

Annealing of Glass

 The glass gradually cools down in the annealing kiln. This action is called anchorage or cooling of the cork. After cooling down, the glass becomes brittle and easily.

 Types of Glass

There are several types of glass. Some main types of glass are:

1. Soft glass: Soft glass is a simple soda - lime coat.This glass softens smoothly at about 100 ° C temperature. It is used in window glass, jars, glass glasses and sprouts etc. House is made in glass utensils.

2 .Hard glass: Hard glass is potash - lime glass (K2SiO3CaSiO3.4SiO2). This glass is soft with difficulty at about 800 ° C. It is used for use of beaker, test tube, flask and high high heat resistance The tool is in the making.

3 .Flint glass: Flint glass potash - Lead silicate glass is used by it to make lenses of prism or optical instruments.

4. Crookes glass: Rare Earth contains crude oxides of metals. It is used to make eyeglass lenses.

5 .Pyrex glass: Purex glass is a mixture of mainly Rosicilates of sodium, potassium and aluminum. In this, the percentages of silica and boric anhydride (B2O3) are also high. It is a high thermostat hardened glass. Its proportion coefficient It is very low, so it does not break with the sudden change of heat. The pyrex glass is used to make high quality equipment for laboratory



 In 1803, John Dalton presented a atomic hypothesis based on the results of experiments and observations, and on the basis of this hypothesis, he composed the composition of matter, the rules of chemical coincidence and the physical and chemical changes. The results of many experiments and observations The authenticity of Dalton's nuclear hypothesis was certified and accepted as a scientific theory. Dalton's atomic theory is called Dalton's
Dalton's atomic theory

 According to Dalton's nuclear principle,

 (1) The matter is composed of very subtle (indivisible) particles called atoms.

 (2) Atom is the subtle particle of matter which can not be divided into more subtle particles. The original particle of atomic material is.

(3) Atoms participate in chemical reactions and in chemical reactions the atom is not decomposed or destroyed.

 (4) All atoms of an element are identical to all types, that is, their mass, size and properties are similar.

(5) Each element has a fixed atomic weight. The fundamental property of atomic weight is the fundamental property.

 (6) The atoms of different elements are different from one another and their atomic masses, shapes, etc. are different.

 (7) Nuclear combinations of different elements can be combined into the whole number ratio. | And by combining them, "compound atoms" are formed.
  Elements of atomic   ,      compounds atoms
        A+B                        =        AB
      2A+B                        =        A2B

(8) Nuclear can not be produced and can not be destroyed
Amendments to Dalton's Atomic Principles

In light of modern scientific discoveries and explorations, significant modifications have been made in Dalton's original nuclear principle, which are as follows:

(1) Nuclear is divisible. It is true that atoms are not decomposed into physical and chemical changes, but by extraordinary physical methods the atoms can be broken into smaller particles than them. The atom itself can be used in various types of fine particles Are made from

Those are primary particles or subatomic particles. Elecrons are the main constituents of proton and neutron atoms.

(2) The atoms of an element can be of different atomic masses. Those atoms of an element whose atoms are different, are called isotopes.

(3) Atomic masses of atoms of different elements can be similar. Those atoms of different elements. The atoms of which are equal are called isobars.

(4) The basic symptom of the element is its atomic number and not atomic weight. The number of protons present in the atomic nuclei of an element is called the atomic number, z, of that element. Each element is a fixed Atomic numbers are different. Atomic numbers of different elements are different.

(5) Combinations of atoms are not "compound atoms" but molecules are formed.

(6) The ratio of the combination of atoms is not necessary in the smallest quantities. In the proteins, carbohydrate polymers, etc. the connective ratio of atoms is not in the periphery

chemistry and branches of chemistry and Importance and expansion of chemicals

What is chemistry
Is a branch of chemistry under which the composition and properties of the substances are studied in their structure and changes in them
In ancient times, the rise of chemicals came in the form of art and crafts; Chemistry developed in the form of chemical arts and crafts till the 17th century was born in the 17th Century. Modern art is not science
Chemistry is an experimental science, which is related to the study of substances, given the extraordinary modern development of chemistry, it has been divided into several branches. The major  chemicals are as follows
chemistry and branches of chemistry and  Importance and expansion

1 Inorganic chemicals - All elements and compounds are studied under it (excluding organic compounds)

2 Organic Chemistry - All organic compounds are studied under it

3 Physical Chemistry - Under this, rules and principles of chemical reactions are studied.

4 Analysis Chemistry - The methods for determining the quantity and quantification of the substances are studied.

5 Industrial Chemistry - The rules, reactions, methods etc. are studied in connection with the creation of huge results of the substances under it.

6 Biochemistry - It involves chemical reactions occurring in biosynthesis and chemicals obtained from animals and plants.

7 Agricultural Chemistry - Under this, chemicals related to agriculture are studied.

Importance and expansion of chemicals

In modern life, chemistry is a very important place. The chemistry of human society in almost all areas. . Designed to make human life prosperous, prosperous, safe and prosperous. Chemical contribution is important in the national economy. The success of the country's development plans depends on the application of some chemicals. All small and large industries require chemical materials. Acid, alkalis and salt metallurgy, metal-purification, petroleum finishing and used in the production of glass, soap, paper, textile, fertilizer, explosive, pigment, drugs etc. Molecular acids, nitric acid, ammonia, cestolic soda and chlorine are pillars of industries. Iron, copper, aluminum, zinc, nickel etc. Many types of alloy - metal, brass and steel - are used in making industries and many things of daily life. Many useful items are made from plastic, teflon, polythene, synthetic rubber and other polymer. The fabrics are made of artificial silk, wool and yarn. Pesticides, pandemic etc. protect crops. Modernities protect varieties and lives. Oils, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, salts and vitamins are an essential part of our diet.
1. Agriculture - fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides etc.

2 Textiles - Artificial silk, wool, artificial thread etc
3. Building and road construction: - Cement, steel, wire etc.

 4. Health and Life - Medicine, Vitamin Antibiotics etc.

 5. Fuel - Gasoline, Diesel, Kerosene, CNG Gaseous Money, LPG etc.

6. Industry cement, glass, textiles, paint, rubber, plastic, leather. 
Steel, sugar, fertilizer etc. Almost all industries use different raw materials.

 7. War Material: Explosive.

 8. Power generation -: Atomic energy, battery, dry cell etc.

9. Metallurgy: Metal - Extraction, Metal - Finishing, Alloy - Metal.

10. Entertainment: Gramophone record, photo film, photography, movies, colorful films, tape, CD etc.

11, Beauty of beauty: oil, perfume, kim, powder, lipstick, nail polish, soap, shampoo etc.

12. Clarifiers: Soaps, insecticides, organic solvents etc.

13 manure - manure preservatives, artificial honey

14 Refrigeration & Air Conditioning - Refrigerators, Fraun

Atomic structure and Electron Proton Neutron

According to John Dalton, in 1803, the atom principle was interpreted, according to which atom is indivisible but according to modern discoveries, it is known that the atom is divisible and is composed of several small atoms.

Components of atom

1 is the fundamental particle of electronic proton and neutron atom
2 A central nucleus is present in the atmosphere, which is surrounded by debt-entrained electronic


1 This is the underlying root cause of the atom, which Thomas had invented. 2 move around the nucleus, its mass  kg
3 Therefore, the mass of the electron is considered to be almost zero, on this there is an entity loan charge i.e. its interest is  
4 Who is its protogenic positron


1 was discovered by Gold Goldstein
2 This positive is charged
3 Its charge is      slave and mass is  kg
4 It is present in the nucleus, its mass is 1836 times the mass of the electron
     The relative mass of the proton
 5 is approximately equal to the hydrogen atom mass and the unit is the charge of the charge.


1 was discovered by Chadwick
2 Its charge is zero and mass  kg or 1.00872u
3 It is located inside the nucleus, it has its antineutrinos.
4 Its mass is almost equal to the mass of the proton but there is no charge on it
5 Only Hydrogen-1 is a permanent name in which neutrons are not
6 electrons are bound by electrochemical balm in the nucleus
7 The number of electrons and proteins is similar to the nucleus at which the atom is neutral if the number of electrons is less than the number of protons and the amount of charge on the atom and the amount of electrons is more than the protons, the charge of the charge is that the atom is converted into ions.
8 According to Lewis de Braglie, all particles behave like wave